"Evolution, Taxonomy and Anatomy"

Humans and our Homo ancestors have been eating meat, in copious amounts, for millennia. The hunting and eating of large fatty animals (megafauna) is integral to our evolutionary past.

Human Taxonomy

Homo Habilis

~2-3 Million years ago During a period of climate change Homo Habilis were the first of our ancestors to Leave the trees and exploit the growing grassy savannahs of Africa. They crafted the first stone tools which allowed these scavengers to butcher carcases left by other predators and to liberate the superior nutrition from bone marrow and brains.

Homo Erectus

~1-2 Million years ago Homo Erectus developed more sophisticated stone tools including simple axes and were the first to harness fire for cooking and protection. It is thought that bush fires caused by lightning first introduced Homo Erectus to cooked meats. The use of wooden spears allowed Homo Erectus to begin hunting instead of relying on second-hand carcases.

Homo Sapiens

~300,000 years ago The invention of more sophisticated tools including composite spears and knives made Homo Sapiens the apex predators that we are today. As the larger megafauna began to die off due to over hunting and climate change (ice age) the use of projectile weapons including throwing spears and eventually the bow and arrow allowed Homo sapiens to be proficient hunters of animals all shapes and sizes. Animal products such as skins and tendons were also used for making tools, clothing and various other useful items. Food was preserved by rendering the fat and smoking the meat.

Comparative Anatomy

Regardless of what Vegans would have you believe, through simple observation we can see that the anatomy of Humans beings is far more suited to a meat-based diet. Although humans and other modern primates' digestive tracts are made up of the same components (stomach, small intestine, cecum, appendix and colon) the comparative size and function of each differs a great deal. Humans have comparatively a much larger small intestine for digesting nutrient dense fats and proteins and a much smaller Colon and Cecum. Our primate cousins have comparatively very small Small Intestines and a very large Colon and Cecum for fermenting and breaking down plant fibres into fatty acids.

The expensive tissue hypothesis poses that growing brains as big as ours was enabled by the shrinking of our overall gut mass. The highly concentrated energy and nutrition that can be obtained from raw and cooked animal foods enabled more resources to be used to build our brain and less resources chewing, fermenting and digesting plant matter.

Other carnivorous human adaptations include: - A shrinking of the jaw and changes in teeth structure and jaw motion with more emphasis on biting and tearing rather than grinding. - A very low stomach PH of 1.5 akin to scavengers and other carnivores. Generally, herbivores have a stomach PH of 5-6, omnivores 3-4, carnivores 2-3 and scavengers 1-1.5. - Relatively small stomach capacity.

Nitrogen Isotopes

Analysis of ancient collagen samples from Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens from 30 to 45 thousand years ago show these subjects were highly carnivorous with a main protein source of large herbivores (Wolly Mammoths, Reindeer and Rhino) and possessing stable nitrogen isotope levels in bones that were greater than other carnivorous animals, including Hyenas and Wolves.